Jet Boat Charts, Diagrams & FAQ's

These pages are a composite of information collected and compiled by us over the past twenty years. We hope you will find them helpful and informative. As with many written and pictorial "instruments" of this type, they can often require interpretation. Please don't hesitate to call or email for friendly knowledgeable tech help and advice .... JBP

Boaters Saftey Course

Jet Drive Repair Tutorial

Header Water Reversion Info

Please scroll down for Jet Drive parts breakdown diagrams, header plumbing, Jet Boat electrical diagrams, Jetdrive impeller charts including "extended horse power/impeller charts" and instructions for Jet pump repairs (coming soon).
JET WATER INJECTED HEADER INSTALLATION
1.  Install stainless steel lines to headers.
2.  Install headers on engine.
3.  Make sure there is not a thermostat in the housing or any other
type of water temperature control.
4.  Install "T" stainless steel control valve in one line of the two
lines on the thermostat   housing.  Connect the T end to header.
Lines to headers should be approximately 2" long.  T valve is marked <
to headers  >
5.  The other lines from the thermostat housing are your by-pass
line.  Run it overboard with a 1/2" brass gate valve.  (plumbing type)
6.  The gate valve is necessary so that you can regulate the amount of
water you discharge.  It also is to regulate what RPM your water is
injected into the headers.  Example:  gate valve is wide open and
water comes in at 3000 RPM.  To make the water come in at 1500 to
2000, close gate valve approximately 1/3.
7.  How your water injected headers work:
A.  Your headers should be dry at idle (and hot).  The water is
going out by-pass line overboard.
B.  The water is injected by approximately 1500 RPM when you are
on the throttle.  When you back off the throttle, the stainless steel
automatic control valve should close and the headers should go dry.
When you get back on the throttle, water should be automatically
injected again.  If it does not work in this manner, something is
hooked up wrong or your valve is plugged.

 JET DRIVE APPLICATION (over transom only)

Header Water "Reversion"  courtesy of Rewarder headers 

Water Reversion/Ingestion

VERY IMPORTANT NOTICE, PLEASE READ CAREFULLY!!!

Reversion, what is it?  It is simply the exhaust pulse flowing backwards momentarily during the overlap phase of the camshaft at low cycling rates.  During the overlap phase the piston is pushing out the last of the exhaust gases and prior to reaching top dead center (T.D.C) the intake valve and the exhaust valve is still closing.   At this point in the engine cycle both valves are in the open position.  At high cycling rates the inertia of the incoming intake charge and the outgoing exhaust pulses keep the exhaust flowing in the proper direction.  But at low cycling rates, as the piston is pushing out the last of the exhaust gases the intake valve opens and some of the spent exhaust charge is pushed into the intake manifold.  As the piston reaches T.D.C. and begins the intake stroke the exhaust valve is still not completely closed.  As a result, the piston pulls from the intake and exhaust valves simultaneously causing the exhaust gases to flow in a reverse direction.  This is normally not a problem until you add water into the exhaust stream.  Reversion can be severe enough to stall the engine, add water to the oil, rust the exhaust seats, etc.   This effect only happens at idle speeds, but remember that during shut down the engine encounters the greatest reversion.

For these reasons Rewarder Custom Headers has guidelines for camshaft selection.   Our guidelines are based on 454 c.i. with a 285 degree camshaft (242 at .050), on a 114 degree lobe center.  Larger cams may cause reversion.  These figures are just guidelines.  Cubic inches, valve size, exhaust valve timing, etc., all will have an effect on reversion.  The only true test is to run the engine with the headers attached, shut it down, remove the headers and check for water residue in the header ports to check for an occurrence of water reversion.

Your Options are:

Install extended dry pipes
bullet This option substantially reduces if not eliminates water reversion.  With this option you can adjust where water is introduced into the exhaust stream.  Remember the longer you extend the dry pipe the louder the system becomes.

Know Your Jet Boat courtesy of American Turbine

UNDERSTANDING YOUR JET BOAT

Most boat owners like to perform at least a certain amount of their boat maintenance themselves to ensure continuing good performance and reliability.

To avoid unnecessary trips to the service center, it might be useful to have a checklist which can be run through systematically, in the hope of pinpointing the problem quickly. The boat can be divided into three categories - jet unit, engine, and hull.

If something is "wrong" with the boat it is usually poor acceleration and load carrying, coupled with excessive fuel consumption or engine RPM's. It could be unusual noise coming from the mechanicals, or possibly just poor top speed. All of these things may be present to some degree, but the usual complaint is that the boat is just plain "gutless".

TACHOMETER

The most important single instrument on the boat when considering performance drop-off is the engine tachometer. The great thing about jet boats is that the engine RPM's should remain the same throughout the life of the boat, regardless of age, loading, water conditions, towing, whatever.

There is no situation where the RPM's should be different from when the boat was new, and as an owner, you will know what these are. At any time, you should be able to open the throttle fully and get exactly the same maximum reading you have been used to. Or perhaps you are finding it needs more RPM's to cruise your normal load? RPM's are a most important indicator of proper operation of the boat.

It is important at this stage to feel confident that your tachometer is reading accurately.

Now we come to our check list, and determination of which major area is the problem. The simplest way is a check on the RPM's first. They could be normal, high, or low, and this will pin point the place to look:

A. Normal maximum RPM = hull problem

If the boat is performing poorly and the maximum RPM's are normal and what you are used to, you can look to the hull and some of the external parts. These include:

1. Overload: Too much weight aboard.

2. Balance: Either too much weight aft, which will cause the nose to be too high and make planing difficult, or if the weight is too far forward, it will cause the nose to plow, difficult steering, wetness, and poor top speed.

3. Reverse bucket: Is the bucket dragging in the reverse stream? Make sure the control is fully up.

4. Excessive hull drag: Is there some external hull obstruction such as rough surface, broken keel strips, or other reason impeding the smooth flow of water over the hull bottom? A visual check on the trailer should reveal if there is. Metal hulls can have a "hook" bashed into them forward of the transom which can cause the bow to plow. The planing surface forward of the transom six to nine feet should be true and flat.

B. High rpm = jet unit problem.

 

Higher than normal RPM's, lack of thrust, slipping clutch feel, engine racing and no go?

1. Blockage: The most common problem is weeds and stones blocking the intake grate. Also be aware of ski rope, fishing line and plastic bags winding around the pump shaft. Small sticks and stones can become lodged in the impeller affecting the performance dramatically, objects trapped in the impeller can cause the rotating assembly to be out of balance, causing severe vibration. Make sure the water passage through the jet is clear.

2. Impeller wear: The heart of the jet is the impeller, and its condition. If you run in shallow gravel beds or across sand bars the leading edges will become dull and inefficient. Pumping sand will increase the wear-ring to impeller clearance. Causing cavitation and loss of performance.

3. Bowl / stator vanes: Its not too much of a problem, but the leading edge of the fixed stator vanes can become blunt and damaged.

4. Air leaks: If excessive air leaks into the intake ahead of the impeller, the jet unit will "slip". Possible sources of air leaks are though a faulty gland seal, which is usually accompanied by a static water leak into the boat when standing idle.

So if the gland is worn out and leaking into the boat with the engine off, it can also suck air when accelerating on to plane, and if this happens, then the thrust is reduced dramatically. Air can also be introduced into the system via the inspection cover, so you will want to make sure the cover is tight.

C. Low RPM = engine problemThere is generally no way the jet unit can overload the engine and bring the RPM's down. If the RPM's are down from usual, it is almost certain to be a engine problem. A compression check will usually reveal leaking piston rings or valves, but the most common reasons for reduced engine power are:

1. Throttle: Check that the throttle is opening fully.

2. Fuel: The fuel supply must be adequate for the engine size. Racing boats frequently have a fuel pressure gauge which is, with the tachometer, probably the most important engine instrument. Sufficient fuel must be reaching the engine.

3. Air to the engine: The carburetor must be getting its full quota of cool air. If the engine has to work to get adequate air, and if it is hot air, this will reduce power.

4. Ignition spark: Be satisfied the ignition system is operating properly. A problem here is usually indicated by a rough running or missing engine.

5. Exhaust: Check for a free flowing exhaust system. Some silencers can become blocked, rubber hoses disintegrate internally, or there is excessive water injection. Such things can cause excessive back pressure and reduce power.

Provided your engine is getting its full quota of air and fuel, and is getting enough spark and at the right time, the engine will usually be OK, and maximum RPM's will result. However if the RPM's are down and you believe the tachometer, look for an engine problem.

The hull, engine, and jet unit are the three main areas to look at when your performance is down.

D. Excessive noise.

This can often be a concern even if there is not a reduction in performance. The most common causes of noise are:

1. Cavitation: The jet unit is starved for water, and usually sounds like a rattle or a can of loose bolts in the back of the boat. Most likely a blocked intake grate.

2. Moan or whine: The jet unit can exhibit some "turbine whine" not unlike a turbocharger noise but you will know what is usual with your boat. However, if you have a new more obvious moan/whine, especially if it is a very low frequency grumble at idle, that increases with engine RPM's then it is likely to be a rough/worn/water damaged thrust bearing. If water has gotten into the bearing, it is usually as a result of a flooded bilge at some time on a warm bearing, then water can be sucked in as it cools.

3. Periodic vibration: Often at specific RPM's and disappearing at other throttle openings is probably a torsional vibration emanating most likely from the universal joints on the drive shaft.

Check them for worn/slack joint needle rollers, or if they have been installed incorrectly after an overhaul.

IMPELLER SELECTION CHART AT, TJ, SD-309, DOMINATOR,
BERKELEY, ENERGIZER KIT Jet Drives
 (use the intersecting reference numbers as shown in the example below, impeller "cut"=hp=rpm. This chart can be used  to choose cam choices, help design  your engine build , diagnose runability or lack of power problems, or to determine approximate unknown horse power and installed impeller cuts. NOTE these are aproximates based on "in spec jets" and will vary slighlty from jet to jet and Impeller manufacturer, these numbers can be also affected by Impeller detailing and other internal jet modifications.  JBP offers all ascpects of Jet drive service and blueprinting.

H.P. 9.5 9.25 AA A B C
150 2900 3050 3200 3600 3800 4050
200 3200 3350 3500 4000 4200 4450
250 3450 3600 3700 4300 4500 4800
300 3800 3950 4050 4550 4800 5100
350 4050 4200 4300 4750 5100 5350
400 4250 4400 4500 5050 5300 5600
450 4450 4600 4700 5250 5500 5850
500 4650 4800 4950 5400 5700 6050
550 4800 4950 5100 5550 5850 N/A
*THESE RPM VALUES MAY VARY ACCORDING TO HOW YOUR BOAT ALLOWS THE PUMP TO LOAD
HORSE POWER REQUIREMENTS ARE AT THE PUMP SHAFT

 

AMERICAN TURBINE JET DRIVE IMPELLER SPECIFICATIONS
IMPELLER SIZE LARGE DIAMETER SMALL DIAMETER MACHINED ANGLE
9 1/2" 9-1/2" 8-1/4" 25 DEGREES
9 1/4" 9-1/4" 8-1/4" 20 DEGREES
AA 9-3/32" 7-13/16" 25 DEGREES
A 9" 7-1/4" 30 DEGREES
B 8-3/4" 6-3/4" 33-1/2 DEGREES
C 8-1/2" 6-1/2" 33-1/2 DEGREES

 Extended Horse power chart (courtesy of Hi Tech Performance)